The idea of harnessing lightning and using the static electricity to supplement our power grid is nothing new. The difficulty has always been knowing when and where lightning will strike, capturing it, then releasing the electricity onto the electrical grid. Even if all these issues were addressed, would it still be worthwhile to try and harness the power of a lightning bolt?
There’s no question thunderstorms generate a tremendous amount of electricity. A typical lightning bolt produces about 10,000 amps. Some bolts, such as the one that struck the Apollo spacecraft in the 60’s, have measured well over 100,000 amps. When you convert a lightning bolt into watts, the result is a pretty large number. But when you convert the watts into kilowatt-hours and compare it to how much electricity the average home uses, the number is not as impressive as most would want to believe. When compared against a large city, it’s even less so.
Even though the average lightning bolt contains about 250 kilowatt-hours of electricity, the average house uses about 914 kilowatt-hours per month. So one lightning bolt won’t even power the average home for half a month.
Each house would need at least 2 to 4 lightning strikes per month to meet its demand. Imagine how many lightning strikes would be needed for a large city such as Los Angeles or New York!
There are also a few technical challenges with trying to harness and use the electricity generated by a lightning bolt. The electricity itself being one of them. Lightning causes thousands of power outages each year when it strikes power lines or transformers sending a huge amount of uncontrolled electricity onto the power poles and transformers. How exactly to store the massive and sudden surge of electricity is no easy feat. One would also need a very sophisticated bank of capacitors and/or batteries capable of receiving an extremely quick charge, and then slowly release the charging into the power grid so as not to cause a large power surge.
While the technological advances of today’s capacitors allow them to store huge amounts of electricity, most aren’t charged in 0.2 msec. This is the time it takes for a lightning bolt to deliver its 1,000,000 kilo-volts of electricity. Conversely, these large capacitors are usually charged slowly and then quickly discharged in specialized applications. Examples being particle accelerators, lasers, and rail guns.
Lastly, knowing when and where a lighting bolt is going to strike is almost in all cases random. Lightning doesn’t know at 50,000 feet what object it is going to strike on the ground. Therefore, knowing where to positioning lightning rods or collection towers is kind of like playing darts blindfolded. One could scatter a bunch of 500 foot towers all over the countryside, but that doesn’t guarantee a lightning strike. But if someone was going to try, Florida would be the most likely location for such a lightning farm.
Florida averages the most lightning strikes each with about 10 strikes, per kilometer, per year. Suppose an electric company set up lightning collection towers in a 1 kilometer area. Let’s also suppose these towers were able to attract all 10 of the lightning strikes for the entire year. They company would only produce enough electricity to power two homes for a month.
It’s simply not economical to build the infrastructure required to capture a lightning bolt as a source of renewable energy.